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COUNTY HEALTH EXPO, San Clemente Events Center, 111
W. Avenida Palizada, San Clemente, CA 92762
SATURDAY JUNE 4th, 2016 - 9AM-6PM - Call (949) 422-7782
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LEARN ABOUT VITAMINS
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February 4th, 2016
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bottle of high potency B-complex
vitamin supplement pills.
is an organic
compound and a vital nutrient
that an organism
requires in limited amounts.
An organic chemical compound (or related
set of compounds) is called a vitamin
when the organism cannot synthesize
the compound in sufficient quantities,
and must be obtained through the diet;
thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional
upon the circumstances and the particular
organism. For example, ascorbic
acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for
humans, but not for most other animal
organisms. Supplementation is important
for the treatment of certain health
problems, but there is little evidence
of nutritional benefit when used by
otherwise healthy people.
convention, the term vitamin
includes neither other essential
nutrients, such as dietary
fatty acids, or essential
amino acids (which are needed in
greater amounts than vitamins) nor the
great number of other nutrients that
promote health, and are required less
often to maintain the health of the
Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized
at present. Vitamins are classified
by their biological and chemical activity,
not their structure. Thus, each "vitamin"
refers to a number of vitamer
compounds that all show the biological
activity associated with a particular
vitamin. Such a set of chemicals is
grouped under an alphabetized vitamin
"generic descriptor" title, such as
A", which includes the compounds
and four known carotenoids.
Vitamers by definition are convertible
to the active form of the vitamin in
the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible
to one another, as well.
have diverse biochemical functions.
Some, such as vitamin D, have hormone-like
functions as regulators of mineral metabolism,
or regulators of cell and tissue growth
and differentiation (such as some forms
of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants
E and sometimes vitamin
The largest number of vitamins, the
complex vitamins, function as precursors
for enzyme cofactors,
that help enzymes in their work as catalysts
In this role, vitamins may be tightly
bound to enzymes
as part of prosthetic
groups: For example, biotin
is part of enzymes involved in making
acids. They may also be less tightly
bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes,
detachable molecules that function to
groups or electrons between molecules.
For example, folic
acid may carry methyl,
groups in the cell. Although these roles
in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions
are vitamins' best-known function, the
other vitamin functions are equally
the mid-1930s, when the first commercial
yeast-extract vitamin B complex and
semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement
tablets were sold, vitamins were obtained
solely through food intake, and changes
in diet (which, for example, could occur
during a particular growing season)
usually greatly altered the types and
amounts of vitamins ingested. However,
vitamins have been produced as commodity
and made widely available as inexpensive
semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin
dietary and food supplements and additives,
since the middle of the 21st century.
vitamin is typically used in multiple
reactions, and, therefore, most have
chemical name(s) (list not complete)
(male, age 19–70)
orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy
vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash,
spinach, fish, soya milk, milk
or muscle relaxation with large
oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables,
potatoes, liver, eggs
products, bananas, popcorn, green
damage (doses > 2g/day)
fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms,
possibly nausea and heartburn.
nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day)
vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy
anemia and Deficiency during
pregnancy is associated with birth
defects, such as neural
mask symptoms of vitamin B12
vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal,
rash [causality is not conclusively
and other animal products
fruits and vegetables, liver
eggs, liver, mushrooms
is very rare; sterility
in males and abortions
in females, mild hemolytic
anemia in newborn infants.
congestive heart failure seen in
one large randomized study.
fruits and vegetables, nuts and
coagulation in patients taking warfarin.
green vegetables such as spinach,
egg yolks, liver
are essential for the normal growth
and development of a multicellular organism.
Using the genetic blueprint inherited
from its parents, a fetus
begins to develop, at the moment of
conception, from the nutrients it absorbs.
It requires certain vitamins and minerals
to be present at certain times. These
nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions
that produce among other things, skin,
If there is serious deficiency in one
or more of these nutrients, a child
may develop a deficiency disease. Even
minor deficiencies may cause permanent
the most part, vitamins are obtained
with food, but a few are obtained by
other means. For example, microorganisms
in the intestine — commonly known
flora" — produce vitamin K
and biotin, while one form of vitamin
D is synthesized in the skin
with the help of the natural ultraviolet
wavelength of sunlight.
Humans can produce some vitamins from
precursors they consume. Examples include
A, produced from beta
carotene, and niacin,
from the amino
growth and development are completed,
vitamins remain essential nutrients
for the healthy maintenance of the cells,
tissues, and organs that make up a multicellular
organism; they also enable a multicellular
life form to efficiently use chemical
energy provided by food it eats, and
to help process the proteins, carbohydrates,
and fats required for respiration.
those who are otherwise healthy, there
is no evidence that supplements have
any benefits with respect to cancer
Vitamin A and E supplements not only
provide no health benefits for generally
healthy individuals, but they may increase
mortality, though the two large studies
that support this conclusion included
for whom it was already known that beta-carotene
supplements can be harmful.
While other findings suggest that vitamin
E toxicity is limited to only a specific
form when taken in excess.
European Union and other countries of
Europe have regulations that define
limits of vitamin (and mineral) dosages
for their safe use as food supplements.
Most vitamins that are sold as food
supplements cannot exceed a maximum
daily dosage. Vitamin products above
these legal limits are not considered
food supplements and must be registered
as prescription or non-prescription
drugs) due to their potential side
effects. As a result, most of the fat-soluble
vitamins (such as the vitamins A, D,
E, and K) that contain amounts above
the daily allowance are drug products.
The daily dosage of a vitamin supplement
for example cannot exceed 300% of the
recommended daily allowance, and for
vitamin A, this limit is even lower
(200%). Such regulations are applicable
in most European countries.
supplements often contain vitamins,
but may also include other ingredients,
such as minerals, herbs, and botanicals.
Scientific evidence supports the benefits
of dietary supplements for persons with
certain health conditions.
In some cases, vitamin supplements may
have unwanted effects, especially if
taken before surgery, with other dietary
supplements or medicines, or if the
person taking them has certain health
They may also contain levels of vitamins
many times higher, and in different
forms, than one may ingest through food.
below is percentage loss of vitamins
after cooking averaged for common foods
such as vegetables, meat or fish.
should be noted however that some vitamins
may become more "bio-available" – that
is, usable by the body – when steamed
table below shows whether various vitamins
are susceptible to loss from heat—such
as heat from boiling, steaming, cooking
etc.—and other agents. The effect of
cutting vegetables can be seen from
exposure to air and light. Water soluble
vitamins such as B and C seep into the
water when a vegetable is boiled.
must consume vitamins periodically but
with differing schedules, to avoid deficiency.
The human body's stores for different
vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D,
and B12 are stored in significant
amounts in the human body, mainly in
and an adult human's diet may be deficient
in vitamins A and D for many months
and B12 in some cases for
years, before developing a deficiency
condition. However, vitamin B3
(niacin and niacinamide) is not stored
in the human body in significant amounts,
so stores may last only a couple of
For vitamin C, the first symptoms of
in experimental studies of complete
vitamin C deprivation in humans have
varied widely, from a month to more
than six months, depending on previous
dietary history that determined body
of vitamins are classified as either
primary or secondary. A primary deficiency
occurs when an organism does not get
enough of the vitamin in its food. A
secondary deficiency may be due to an
underlying disorder that prevents or
limits the absorption or use of the
vitamin, due to a "lifestyle factor",
such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption,
or the use of medications that interfere
with the absorption or use of the vitamin.
People who eat a varied diet are unlikely
to develop a severe primary vitamin
deficiency. In contrast, restrictive
diets have the potential to cause prolonged
vitamin deficits, which may result in
often painful and potentially deadly
human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine
vitamin C (scurvy),
and vitamin D (rickets).
In much of the developed world, such
deficiencies are rare; this is due to
(1) an adequate supply of food and (2)
the addition of vitamins and minerals
to common foods, often called fortification.
In addition to these classical vitamin
deficiency diseases, some evidence has
also suggested links between vitamin
deficiency and a number of different
large doses, some vitamins have documented
that tend to be more severe with a larger
dosage. The likelihood of consuming
too much of any vitamin from food is
remote, but overdosing (vitamin
poisoning) from vitamin supplementation
does occur. At high enough dosages,
some vitamins cause side-effects such
When side-effects emerge, recovery is
often accomplished by reducing the dosage.
The doses of vitamins differ because
individual tolerances can vary widely
and appear to be related to age and
state of health.
2008, overdose exposure to all formulations
of vitamins and multivitamin-mineral
formulations was reported by 68,911
individuals to the American
Association of Poison Control Centers
(nearly 80% of these exposures were
in children under the age of 6), leading
to 8 "major" life-threatening outcomes,
but no deaths.
are classified as either water-soluble
or fat-soluble. In humans there are
13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E,
and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins
and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins
dissolve easily in water and, in general,
are readily excreted from the body,
to the degree that urinary output is
a strong predictor of vitamin consumption.
Because they are not as readily stored,
more consistent intake is important.
Many types of water-soluble vitamins
are synthesized by bacteria.
vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal
tract with the help of lipids
(fats). Because they are more likely
to accumulate in the body, they are
more likely to lead to hypervitaminosis
than are water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble
vitamin regulation is of particular
significance in cystic
The discovery dates of the
vitamins and their sources
most fresh foods
unrefined vegetable oils
in many foods
value of eating a certain food to maintain
health was recognized long before vitamins
were identified. The ancient Egyptians
knew that feeding liver
to a person would help cure night
blindness, an illness now known
to be caused by a vitamin
The advancement of ocean voyages during
resulted in prolonged periods without
access to fresh fruits and vegetables,
and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency
common among ships' crews.
1747, the Scottish
Lind discovered that citrus
foods helped prevent scurvy,
a particularly deadly disease in which
is not properly formed, causing poor
wound healing, bleeding of the gums,
severe pain, and death.
In 1753, Lind published his Treatise
on the Scurvy, which recommended
to avoid scurvy,
which was adopted by the British Royal
Navy. This led to the nickname Limey
for sailors of that organization. Lind's
discovery, however, was not widely accepted
by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic
expeditions in the 19th century, where
it was widely believed that scurvy could
be prevented by practicing good hygiene,
regular exercise, and maintaining the
of the crew while on board, rather than
by a diet of fresh food.
As a result, Arctic expeditions continued
to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency
diseases. In the early 21st century,
Falcon Scott made his two expeditions
to the Antarctic,
the prevailing medical theory at the
time was that scurvy was caused by "tainted"
the late 18th and early 19th centuries,
the use of deprivation studies allowed
scientists to isolate and identify a
number of vitamins. Lipid from fish
oil was used to cure rickets
and the fat-soluble nutrient was called
"antirachitic A". Thus, the first "vitamin"
bioactivity ever isolated, which cured
rickets, was initially called "vitamin
A"; however, the bioactivity of this
compound is now called vitamin
In 1881, Russian
surgeon Nikolai Lunin studied the effects
of scurvy while at the University
of Tartu in present-day Estonia.
He fed mice
an artificial mixture of all the separate
constituents of milk
known at that time, namely the proteins,
The mice that received only the individual
constituents died, while the mice fed
by milk itself developed normally. He
made a conclusion that "a natural food
such as milk must therefore contain,
besides these known principal ingredients,
small quantities of unknown substances
essential to life."
However, his conclusions were rejected
by other researchers when they were
unable to reproduce his results. One
difference was that he had used table
while other researchers had used milk
that still contained small amounts of
Asia, where polished white
rice was the common staple food
of the middle class, beriberi
resulting from lack of vitamin B1
In 1884, Takaki
Kanehiro, a British trained medical
doctor of the Imperial
Japanese Navy, observed that beriberi
among low-ranking crew who often ate
nothing but rice, but not among officers
who consumed a Western-style diet. With
the support of the Japanese navy, he
experimented using crews of two battleships;
one crew was fed only white rice, while
the other was fed a diet of meat, fish,
barley, rice, and beans. The group that
ate only white rice documented 161 crew
members with beriberi and 25 deaths,
while the latter group had only 14 cases
of beriberi and no deaths. This convinced
Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet
was the cause of beriberi, but mistakenly
believed that sufficient amounts of
protein prevented it.
That diseases could result from some
dietary deficiencies was further investigated
Eijkman, who in 1897 discovered
that feeding unpolished rice
instead of the polished variety to chickens
helped to prevent beriberi in the chickens.
The following year, Frederick
Hopkins postulated that some foods
contained "accessory factors" —
in addition to proteins, carbohydrates,
fats etc. — that are necessary
for the functions of the human body.
Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the
Prize for Physiology or Medicine
in 1929 for their discovery of several
1910, the first vitamin complex was
isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro
Suzuki, who succeeded in extracting
a water-soluble complex of micronutrients
from rice bran and named it aberic
acid (later Orizanin). He
published this discovery in a Japanese
When the article was translated into
German, the translation failed to state
that it was a newly discovered nutrient,
a claim made in the original Japanese
article, and hence his discovery failed
to gain publicity. In 1912 Polish biochemist
Funk isolated the same complex of
micronutrients and proposed the complex
be named "vitamine" (from "vital amine",
reportedly suggested by Max
Nierenstein a friend and reader
of Biochemistry at Bristol University).
The name soon became synonymous with
Hopkins' "accessory factors", and, by
the time it was shown that not all vitamins
the word was already ubiquitous. In
Cecil Drummond proposed that the
final "e" be dropped to deemphasize
the "amine" reference, after researchers
began to suspect that not all "vitamines"
(in particular, vitamin
A) have an amine component.
Karrer elucidated the correct structure
the main precursor of vitamin A, and
identified other carotenoids.
Karrer and Norman
Haworth confirmed Albert Szent-Györgyi's
discovery of ascorbic
acid and made significant contributions
to the chemistry of flavins,
which led to the identification of lactoflavin.
For their investigations on carotenoids,
flavins and vitamins A and B2, they
both received the Nobel
Prize in Chemistry in 1937.
Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher
Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic
acid" was actually vitamin
C, and gave a sample to Charles
Glen King, who proved its anti-scorbutic
activity in his long-established guinea
pig scorbutic assay. In 1937, Szent-Györgyi
was awarded the Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine
for his discovery. In 1943, Edward
Adelbert Doisy and Henrik
Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine for their
discovery of vitamin
K and its chemical structure. In
Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize
(along with Ragnar
Granit and Haldan
Keffer Hartline) for his discovery
that vitamin A could participate directly
in a physiological process.
term vitamin was derived from
"vitamine," a compound
word coined in 1912 by the Polish
when working at the Lister
Institute of Preventive Medicine.
The name is from vital and amine,
of life, because it was suggested in
1912 that the organic micronutrient
food factors that prevent beriberi
and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency
diseases might be chemical amines. This
was true of thiamine,
but after it was found that other such
micronutrients were not amines the word
was shortened to vitamin in English.
countries place dietary
supplements in a special category
under the general umbrella of foods,
not drugs. This necessitates that the
manufacturer, and not the government,
be responsible for ensuring that its
dietary supplement products are safe
before they are marketed. Regulation
of supplements varies widely by country.
In the United
States, a dietary supplement is
defined under the Dietary
Supplement Health and Education Act
In addition, the Food
and Drug Administration uses the
Adverse Event Reporting System to monitor
adverse events that occur with supplements.
In 2007, the US Code
of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title
21, part III took effect, regulating
GMP practices in the manufacturing,
packaging, labeling, or holding operations
for dietary supplements. Even though
product registration is not required,
these regulations mandate production
and quality control standards (including
testing for identity, purity and adulterations)
for dietary supplements.
In the European Union, the Food
Supplements Directive requires that
only those supplements that have been
proven safe can be sold without a prescription.
For most vitamins, pharmacopoeial
standards have been established.
In the United States, the United
States Pharmacopeia (USP) sets standards
for the most commonly used vitamins
and preparations thereof. Likewise,
monographs of the European
Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.) regulate
aspects of identity and purity for vitamins
on the European market.
reason that the set of vitamins skips
directly from E to K is that the vitamins
corresponding to letters F-J were either
reclassified over time, discarded as
false leads, or renamed because of their
relationship to vitamin B, which became
a complex of vitamins.
German-speaking scientists who isolated
and described vitamin K (in addition
to naming it as such) did so because
the vitamin is intimately involved in
the coagulation of blood following wounding
(from the German
word Koagulation). At the time,
most (but not all) of the letters from
F through to J were already designated,
so the use of the letter K was considered
The table on the right lists chemicals
that had previously been classified
as vitamins, as well as the earlier
names of vitamins that later became
part of the B-complex.
are chemical compounds that inhibit
the absorption or actions of vitamins.
For example, avidin
is a protein in egg whites that inhibits
the absorption of biotin.
Pyrithiamine is similar to thiamine,
B1, and inhibits the
that use thiamine.
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honest answer is the sign of true friendship."
County Health Expo, OC Health Expo servers all Orange
and receives many customers from the following cities:
Aliso Viejo, Anaheim, Anaheim Hills, Brea, Buena Park,
Capistrano Beach, Cerritos, Corona Del Mar, Costa Mesa,
Coto De Caza, Cowan Heights, Crystal Cove, Cypress,
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Valley, Fullerton, Garden Grove, Huntington Beach, Huntington
Harbour, Irvine, La Habra, La Habra Heights, La Palma,
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Heights, Long Beach, Los Alamitos, Midway City, Mission
Viejo, Modjeska Canyon, Monarch Beach, Newport Beach,
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Placentia, Portola Hills, Rancho Santa Margarita, Rossmoor,
San Clemente, San Juan Capistrano, Santa Ana, Seal Beach,
Silverado Canyon, Stanton, Sunset Beach, Surfside, Trabuco
Canyon, Tustin, Villa Park, Wagon Wheel, Westminster,
Yorba Linda, Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside
Business was Awarded
Best in Business
Orange County CA, Visit:
ORANGE COUNTY HEALTH EXPO ( OC HEALTH EXPO )
111 W. Avenida Palizada, San Clemente, CA 92762
Call (949) 422-7782
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Clemente Event Center, Orange County California
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